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Mod-02 Lec-20 Dealing with efficiency and excellence Contd.

Mod-02 Lec-20 Dealing with efficiency and excellence Contd.


To continue with the elaboration on managing
for effectiveness, one needs to do a quick recap of some of the dimensions, which are
relevant and also try to make it go forward. Please note that, self-development, thus involves
learning and growth in all the dimensions. And what are all the dimensions under question?
The dimensions under question would be growth in skills, growth in knowledge, growth in
attitudes and growth in values. Well might one ask, what are the controls of growth on
each of these? Growth on the dimension of skills is easy to observe, easy to measure,
and easy to demonstrate. So, there is not much of an elaboration needed there. Similarly,
growth in knowledge shows by the kind of correlations you can establish and kind of applications
that you are able to see; and above all, your general analysis and interpretation of a situation.
But the two areas, where growth is a little more subtle, an appreciation of that a little
more complicated are the dimensions of attitudes and values.
How do you assess that a person is growing in his attitudes? For that, a simple maturity
skill is needed. A lot of a work has been done in behavioral sciences in developing
a maturity scale. For example, Freud defined maturity as the ability to go through pleasure
and pain without a sense of guilt. Now, that as you can see, is a clearly Freudian twist.
Since a lot of psycho analyses deals with propositions of guilt, he defines maturity
as going beyond guilt to recognizing life as it is. And of course, that can be played
back and forth like many thing else, which many scholars have said. But that will await
another discussion. The more important thing is the illustration is meant to show that,
maturity on attitudes is an index of growth. But then one definition leads to another explanation
being required. What is maturity? I just gave you one definition.
And there are of course other definitions of maturity. But one common trait to all definitions
of maturity is the perspective of walking through something in a well-considered manner
without getting rattled, without getting upset, without too many fluctuations of moods. Even
Gita talks of equanimity. Equanimity is essentially a state of stable emotional frame without
turbulence. And the reason for that is very simple and scientific. Turbulence distorts
judgments. And if you get excited and if you get worried, and if you tend to groove, then
your critical faculties are not at their best; be that as it may. The need to understand
growing attitudes is the need to recognize; that to be effective, you need to be matured;
and whereas, there are no limits to maturity. With growing age your ability to understand
and cope with life should obviously, increase. That requires an attitudinal growth. Like
the study of attitudinal growth, the study of growth of values becomes important. And
it is necessary to understand that growing values requires greater ability at reflection
and still greater abilities at doing what is good; not just for yourself, but others;
and not just for others, to do what is good for all elements in the environment. You do
what is good to preserve life in all its manifestations. And you do what is good and correct to preserve
the worth of ever inanimate subjects. The word subject being used here in the meaning
of psychology an existence, an object and even material objects with seemingly have
no life element in it; play a valuable role in the quality of existence of the planet.
So, your growing values should be a factor of growing age. Now, apply that all to managerial effectiveness
and you get a situation, which can be probably captioned as job potential for self-development.
After all, self development that we are talking about in this context is self-development
in a managerial job. And therefore, the job potential must increase. Job potential for
effectiveness must increase. And as you go up the ladder, you realize that, you need
to have a perspective of problem solving with resource optimization, which helps everyone
to grow. Hence, there is a static relationship between the job and the manager’s self-development.
They are bounded together. If a manager’s self-development is on the upward trajectory,
the quality of the job discharge, the quality that brings upon doing his job will continuously
go on raising and improving, because one needs to remember that, a manager is a manager is
a manager. And, what does that mean when one says a manager
is a manager is a manager? You can have the same job being occupied by different people,
who will discharge their job in different styles, because managers bring his personality
with him. And if you bring your personality with you, your style varies. And therefore,
the act of job discharge has a whole spectrum of possibilities, which need to be a bounded
situation, because a spectrum of possibilities cannot take you outside the job boundaries,
because if you go beyond job boundaries, you are in a state of conflict with somebody else’s
job. So, the statement that a manager has to perform
the role in the context of his role set. Please read this sentence very carefully, because
it is an important sentence. A manager has to perform his role in the context of the
role set; which means essentially, it is the job, which requires the skills of the manager;
his effectiveness will be a factor of the excellence and the efficiency, which he brings
upon the tasks, which he is handling. Effectiveness would mean that, he is capable of achieving
the levels of results, which his job requires him to. But on the other hand, he cannot work
as an autonomous variable. So, the interplay between his skills and the tasks is the real
measurement of effectiveness. This diagram shows to you in a set of boxes,
the relationship between job and self-development and how it is a static relationship. Please
observe this. Then I will give you my comments. Now, like everything else, it begins with
environment. The environment works through institutions; institutions have role sets;
role sets require roles; and roles are discharged by people, who have a self, who have an existence.
Now, the interaction between these five elements is the path that, effectiveness will take.
Effectiveness as it has been pointed out to you will require efficiency; it will require
efficiency at the institutional level. What would the efficiency mean here? If a message
is given, it gets to its recipient in the minimal possible time. Role set will have
efficiency in correlation of the tasks, in passing on messages amongst the tasks. Role
will require excellence. All these put together would require self-development – something
which I have been trying to draw your attention to and I have been dwelling up on; obviously,
self-development and managing a self is the huge domain on which many specializations
occur. But at the level of your learning and the level of your requirement, it may be sufficed
to say that, self-development is a matter of concern of any manager, any decision maker
and any person, who has anything to do with action in an organizational environment. Therefore, the role set typically is made
up of his personality, the personality of his immediate superior, the personality of
other functional supervisors and personality of colleagues at his level. In each case,
personality is common to all of them. The role set typically is made up of his personality
of his immediate superior’s personality, of other functional supervisors and colleagues
at his level. How does personality become a factor of effectiveness?
Personality has everything to do with temperament. Temperament has everything to do with one’s
ability to handle disappointments and success. It has everything to do with the other person’s
ability to handle disappointments and success; his ability to keep his temper; his ability
to bring on to job, patience and perseverance; his ability to communicate with openness,
which is a personality factor. So, several of the elements, which go into the making
of a manager’s effectiveness or an organization’s effectiveness, require an understanding of
the intangible elements of human action. And, if the personality of everyone is relevant,
so is the personality of subordinates, the skills of the subordinates; the ability of
the subordinates to take responsibility for their action, because there may be such a
thing as delegation upwards. A role set itself functions within an overall organization.
Finally, the organization has to operate in a wide environment. So, again, a tripartite
relationship has to be understood. The human beings involved enter into an interactory
relationship. They interact with reference to each other’s
role as much as their own role. Their own role is set in functions in an organizational
context. And the organizational context has to work in an environmental context. And if
it is working in an environmental context, the nature of one will permeate into the other
and touch the individual. And that is a point which repeatedly comes up and which needs
to be understood if you have to understand effectiveness. And you have to understand
how effectiveness is derived from efficiency and how effectiveness is derived from excellence. The factors which affect self-development
are low awareness of self – what am I about? Now, this question of what I am about in this
managerial environment is not simply a philosophical question. It is a question of your sound awareness
of your skills and your ability to carry out tasks, which will leave an impact on the work
environment. The other objective factors, which go into determining your effectiveness
is your role clarity. The role may be clear, but did you understand the role? That role
is going to be the channelization of your skills. That role is going to be your operational
theater of action. And if you are conscious of what you are about managerially and if
you are conscious of what the job requires you to put on the ground, then it is logical
that, some of it may be a little more than your liking, a little less than your expectations.
And hence, the point that there could be a role stress being caused by incompatible expectations
in the role set. So, role stress, incompatible expectations and role set are mutually related
to each other. And your ability to handle your role stress is a very important ingredient
of effectiveness. So, now, we are adding to the concern of effectiveness and other dimension.
Can you hold your own? In the times which we live in, we find that the quality of role
stress has gone ahead far beyond the anticipated levels when one enters into a job. People
are progressively finding that, the person with whom they are dealing is not as reasonable
as they would want him to be. Why, even the people with whom we are not in an active job
relationship can cause stress. Look at the multiple cases of road rage, which come. Another
person in another vehicle or he does not even have to be in a vehicle; he just has to cause
stress on others. By the way, he walks across a road. He is not related to you. But he decides
that, that is the point of the road, where he wants to walk through. And if you do not
drive carefully and if you so much adscript by his side, there is trouble. So, the number
of times, the heart skips a beat. While you are on a road, affects everyone.
The cyclist is equally worried about what the motorist may do. The pedestrian is worried
about what will happen; just as he worries, the person at the wheels. So, what is the
message which comes out of all these? You have to be an evolved self; you have to be
a person, who is cognizant of what you are causing to yourself and causing to others
to be successful in a work situation. Not many people have the ability to realize what
they are doing to others. The touch stone is they want results for themselves.
And they do not often realize that you cannot get results for yourself unless you get the
other person equally in an operational frame of mind or in a state of mind, which is relaxed,
and therefore, optimal in decision making. So, the art of effectiveness lies in controlling
yourself; that also, if I might say so in managing others in a non-oppressive manner,
so that the others can fulfill your expectations better. Therefore, reasonableness of behavior
towards others is really enlightened self interest. And predicatively, then we enter in to another
aspect of the operations of management. You may have all the personal skills; you may
have all the elements of maturity; you may have all the elements of managing yourself
and others; but the organizational weaknesses prevent optimal results. Organizational weaknesses
may be emerging out of system annihilations, which have to do with faulted structures.
Work was never designed proactively worse. It is designed in one way on paper and it
is quite another way in operation. Therefore, exercise of authority would be
as per assumptions of the work design on paper. But the work being actually discharge is on
completely different set of parameters. And so your command sequence is not consistent
with the operational structural sequence of work. Therefore, there is dissonance and therefore,
there will be ineffectiveness. How do you do this? A difficult question to answer. It
is difficult because of several parameters. One of the basic ones being, that singly and
individually, you cannot carry out organizational redesign.
Remember, organization development is defined as planned change from the top. The man on
the top may be not convinced of the argument to change; worse, he may not be capable of
understanding it; or even if he understands it of executing it, then it becomes one of
the givens of life. We have got to learn to live with it; we have got to learn to cope
with it; we have to learn to walk through it; and at least try to be effective in your
own job and be conscious that, ultimately, in the overall organizational and the work
completion frame, the results may not come in, because others are not performing at the
same level. And they again may not be at fault; it is a structural weakness of the organization.
And, in my level of limited experience of consulting, researching, practicing in the
industry, have found that, one of the most difficult things to convey to top management
is the structural weakness of an organizational frame. They do not even understand, what a
structural weakness is about in many cases. But since they hold the rank of an organizational
superior, there obiter dictum that is there pronouncement on what the situation in the
organization is about, will hold, will operate; and will be a factor of
with what speed and with what energy would
organizational renewal takes place if at all. In the meanwhile, the organizational weaknesses
will persist if they are there and even if the organizational weaknesses are not there;
but the organization is not in a developmental mode. Then organizations will become obsolete
in slow incremental degrees and their effectiveness will reduce. Hence, a very simple proposition

organizational renewal is an essential ingredient of overall organizational action.
Any organization, which does not keep renewing itself, is bound to get into trouble. Unfortunately,
most organizations tend to function without a conscious organizational renewal approach.
The organizational renewal, which takes place in this organization, that is, an organization
of this breed takes place because of what would be an approach by reflex to renew the
organization, because you see something going wrong and you keep correcting it in small
bits. But reflex corrective action in small bits will never be a substitute for an overall
conscious organizational redesign, renewal effort. And you have heard me state in many
different ways, each organization is in a state of redesign, because that is the way
it will be if it is an evolving organization. Add to it the concerns of unclear inappropriate
strategy and you have situation, which is confounded. And anyone knows confusion when
confounded can be quite a terrible situation to deal with.
So, what is it that I am saying? I am submitting for your consideration a very simple proposition.
The proposition is
effectiveness requires a certain quality of organizational strength, organizational health,
organizational vitality. And from narration so far, meaning of health vitality should
be clear. It should be functioning organization capable of achieving its goals with a certain
degree of efficiency, a certain degree of excellence. But that itself will not happen
unless proper strategies are in place. And proper strategies require conscious action;
strategies will always be there, but there will be always suboptimal if they are unconscious
strategies. And they will require interventions of creating actual operational strategies,
which have been well-thought through. So, we go back to looking at self-development
and organization development in a joint mode. And, let us switch back to looking at what
would be the difficulties of self-development. The list is long; the list is so long that,
it will be impossible to exhaustively describe them. But let me walk you through at least
four of them, which may be somewhat enlightening to those of you, who feel evolved sufficiently
as managers to develop yourself to create an environment of effectiveness around you.
The first difficulty in self-development is dogmatism. When you are dogmatic, you tend
to believe that, you know it all. I have a case, where a senior ranking police
officer came to me with a situation, where he felt certain structural aspect of a states
police headquarters needed to be relooked at. And would I find time to do a scientific
analysis to recast it. Since he was number 2 or 3, I forget at what level; but he was
very much at the top. I suggested that he should have a discussion with the top man.
And he said, would you like to talk to him? I said, no, I would not like to talk to him,
because a – I do not know him; b – he will have all the reservations of a practicing
police official. And I may be just considered theoretical; I may be considered from an ivory
tower, I may be looked at as a person – what does he know of the police force; has ever
worked in a police force. All those arguments, which are so easy to believe; when you do
believe that, your own profession is the top of the heap; and all sorts of prejudices,
which go with it. All professions have their prejudices. And
all simple size has its exception. So, there is no point in saying, I do not have any prejudices;
it is possible you do not have any prejudices, but I would put you under a group of people,
who are exceptions rather than a rule. But to get back to the story, on my persuasion,
he did go and discuss it with the top man. Back he came with reply – the top man says,
what will the doctor tell us, which we do not know? Then I said pause there. If the
doctor can tell you nothing more, which you do not know, then surely, you must have solutions
to all the problems that you do not know. He said, yes, that it is logical to follow
up statement number 1 with statement number 2. I said, therefore, statement number 3.
If you do know all that is to be known and if you do know what to do with the problems,
which exist, then answer a simple question – why is it not done? That is the catch.
It is not done, because there is a deficiency somewhere; the capacity of decision making
is not lodged where the problem is; the resources may be inadequate; the political will to change
may be deficient; the skills required to cause the change may not be there. All of them may
be there; but the time to put it in action may not be there. And even if all of it is
there, perhaps it has not been adopted as an action point.
Therefore, somebody needs to serve as a champion to put is as an action point. And I went on
with the list and I said, that is what the effectiveness specialist will do to the organization;
but I suggest the effort be dropped, because your top man has the characteristic of being
dogmatic; he is firm on his opinion; there is no scope for change; and therefore, the
only change, which will take place would be either the change, which takes place as natural
process or what I term as the change under distress. So, my first proposition to you
– dogmatism is one of the major difficulties in self-development.
The second is intellectual lethargy. Intellectual lethargy is more corrosive than physical lethargy.
It may sound strange, but it is true that a lot of people are simply allergic to intellectual
effort. And when they proclaim themselves to be practical people and they looked on
upon any approach which propounds any theory, what they are actually saying is that, we
are so high and mighty that we are not convinced that there is anything more to acquire; and
anyhow, thinking is such a pain; I prefer not to think. And the third level of evolution
of that thought – why think when life is going on in a quite a reasonable manner, because
they do not realize that, actually, they cannot put up with the pain of thinking; which is
why one of the end products of any learning or any education process is the ability to
think. This ability to think requires certain ware
with all to deliver. And that certain ware with all to deliver requires intellectual
stimulation for action. Intellectual stimulation requires sourcing of information and sourcing
of knowledge. Sourcing of knowledge and sourcing of information is itself an art, which has
to be acquired. People do not often know how to source information, where to get to get
the answers. Remember, one needs even skills to source a thesaurus; or, if that is too
difficult concept for you to grasp – to source a dictionary. One must know how a word
can be found in a dictionary. There are other subtle and not so subtle skills required for
self-development. And, one of them is motivation. So, the difficulty
is arrested motivation. Life has ceased to interest you; life does not offer you any
challenges, which you are willing to accept. So, you had the motivation; you are now happy
to move with a stream; you have reached a state of drift, which gives you a false sense
of comfort; and you do not have the will to get beyond it. This is known as arrested motivation.
But if you think dogmatism, intellectual lethargy, arrested motivation are problems, which till
you are reminded of this fourth problem or difficulty in self-development, and this really
takes the cake – the problem of defensiveness. You cannot bear scrutiny; any suggestion is
seen as an offensive act. You see any attempt to help you as the other
person attempting to demean you. And you are conscious all along that you are not able
to do it without help, but yet if you accept help, it is the exceptions of failure. Therefore,
you take it upon yourself to keep defending whatever you are doing, where very often you
would know that, what you are doing is wrong. But if you did not defend yourself, your ego
would be hurt; and your ego would be hurt up to a point, where you are not willing to
recognize that, you deserve inputs, which lead to self-development; and that input is
being provided; not to prove you are wrong, but to make you optimally efficient and optimally
effective and make sure whatever you do is done in an excellent manner. Therefore, effectiveness
requires a whole set of road blocks to be removed.
Not only have a whole set of road blocks to be removed, but a whole set of accelerators
have to be put in position. Not only a whole set of accelerators have to be put in position,
but you have to be made a growing and a learning person, who believes in himself, loves himself
enough to keep growing. This kind of a manager is obviously more effective in a work situation.
But then again to go to the other component of effectiveness, that is, the organizational
aspects, one of the traits of managers in work situation, which will get results, is
the ability to delegate. So, I bring up the topic of self-development
through delegation. And a simple proposition is put across to you – there is much scope
for development through delegation. But you can clearly see, the key concept in effectiveness
is development. It can be self-development; it can be organizational development; but
there is no getting away from development. And tools of effectiveness therefore, has
anything to do which develops the individual; which develops structures, processes, designs;
puts them in a developmental frame, communication patterns. And like everything else, this is
beset with difficulties. But the difficulties can be overcome by a conscious effort. We
will be paying attention to this conscious effort in course of time. And, it may be a good idea for you to take
a look at the concept of development before we close this part of the discussion, because
there are really three dimensions to development be it individual or be it personal. Development
of the individual in formal organizations requires both job competencies and personal
growth. Please note this as one of the conclusions, which you need to take away. Development of
individual in formal organizations requires both, that is, his development in his job
competencies and personal dimension. Development of enterprise or other types of systems require
the ability to cope with this growth – growth, which is taking place in the external environment;
growth which is taking place in internally, so that each dimension has internal consistency
with the next level of growth. Development of the wider economy through growing
institutions – so individual, organization and the wider economy, because there are regulatory
agencies; there are policy framing agencies; there are funding agencies; there are agencies,
which deal with supply chain; there are agencies, which deal with purchase. Above all, there
are agencies of civil society – those which deal with public utilities; those which deal
with law and order situation. So, unless each institution is growing, corporate growth is
not possible and effectiveness will forever be effective. We shall look at all these in
course of time.

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