ArticlesBlog

Is war between China and the US inevitable? | Graham Allison

Is war between China and the US inevitable? | Graham Allison


So, let me thank you
for the opportunity to talk about the biggest international story
of your professional lifetime, which is also the most important
international challenge the world will face
for as far as the eye can see. The story, of course,
is the rise of China. Never before have so many people
risen so far so fast, on so many different dimensions. The challenge is the impact
of China’s rise — the discombobulation
this will cause the Unites States and the international order, of which the US has been
the principal architect and guardian. The past 100 years have been what
historians now call an “American Century.” Americans have become
accustomed to their place at the top of every pecking order. So the very idea of another country that could be as big and strong
as the US — or bigger — strikes many Americans
as an assault on who they are. For perspective on what
we’re now seeing in this rivalry, it’s useful to locate it
on the larger map of history. The past 500 years have seen 16 cases in which a rising power
threatened to displace a ruling power. Twelve of those ended in war. So just in November, we’ll all pause
to mark the 100th anniversary of the final day of a war
that became so encompassing, that it required historians to create
an entirely new category: world war. So, on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918, the guns of World War I fell silent, but 20 million individuals lay dead. I know that this
is a sophisticated audience, so you know about the rise of China. I’m going to focus, therefore,
on the impact of China’s rise, on the US, on the international order and on the prospects for war and peace. But having taught at Harvard
over many years, I’ve learned that from time to time,
it’s useful to take a short pause, just to make sure we’re all
on the same page. The way I do this is, I call a time-out, I give students a pop quiz —
ungraded, of course. So, let’s try this. Time-out, pop quiz. Question: forty years ago, 1978, China sets out
on its march to the market. At that point, what percentage
of China’s one billion citizens were struggling to survive
on less than two dollars a day? Take a guess — 25 percent? Fifty? Seventy-five? Ninety. What do you think? Ninety. Nine out of every 10
on less than two dollars a day. Twenty eighteen, 40 years later. What about the numbers? What’s your bet? Take a look. Fewer than one in 100 today. And China’s president has promised
that within the next three years, those last tens of millions
will have been raised up above that threshold. So it’s a miracle, actually,
in our lifetime. Hard to believe. But brute facts are even harder to ignore. A nation that didn’t even appear
on any of the international league tables 25 years ago has soared, to rival — and in some areas,
surpass — the United States. Thus, the challenge
that will shape our world: a seemingly unstoppable rising China accelerating towards an apparently
immovable ruling US, on course for what could be
the grandest collision in history. To help us get our minds
around this challenge, I’m going to introduce you
to a great thinker, I’m going to present a big idea, and I’m going to pose a most
consequential question. The great thinker is Thucydides. Now, I know his name is a mouthful, and some people
have trouble pronouncing it. So, let’s do it, one,
two, three, together: Thucydides. One more time: Thucydides. So who was Thucydides? He was the father and founder of history. He wrote the first-ever history book. It’s titled “The History
of the Peloponnesian War,” about the war in Greece, 2500 years ago. So if nothing else today,
you can tweet your friends, “I met a great thinker. And I can even pronounce
his name: Thucydides.” So, about this war
that destroyed classical Greece, Thucydides wrote famously: “It was the rise of Athens
and the fear that this instilled in Sparta that made the war inevitable.” So the rise of one and the reaction of the other create a toxic cocktail of pride, arrogance, paranoia, that drug them both to war. Which brings me to the big idea: Thucydides’s Trap. “Thucydides’s Trap” is a term
I coined several years ago, to make vivid Thucydides’s insight. Thucydides’s Trap is the dangerous
dynamic that occurs when a rising power threatens
to displace a ruling power, like Athens — or Germany 100 years ago,
or China today — and their impact on Sparta, or Great Britain 100 years ago,
or the US today. As Henry Kissinger has said, once you get this idea, this concept
of Thucydides’s Trap in your head, it will provide a lens for helping you look through
the news and noise of the day to understand what’s actually going on. So, to the most consequential question
about our world today: Are we going to follow
in the footsteps of history? Or can we, through a combination
of imagination and common sense and courage find a way to manage this rivalry without a war nobody wants, and everybody knows would be catastrophic? Give me five minutes to unpack this, and later this afternoon, when the next
news story pops up for you about China doing this,
or the US reacting like that, you will be able to have a better
understanding of what’s going on and even to explain it to your friends. So as we saw with this flipping
the pyramid of poverty, China has actually soared. It’s meteoric. Former Czech president, Vaclav Havel,
I think, put it best. He said, “All this has happened so fast,
we haven’t yet had time to be astonished.” (Laughter) To remind myself
how astonished I should be, I occasionally look out the window
in my office in Cambridge at this bridge, which goes
across the Charles River, between the Kennedy School
and Harvard Business School. In 2012, the State of Massachusetts said
they were going to renovate this bridge, and it would take two years. In 2014, they said it wasn’t finished. In 2015, they said
it would take one more year. In 2016, they said it’s not finished, we’re not going to tell you
when it’s going to be finished. Finally, last year, it was finished —
three times over budget. Now, compare this to a similar bridge
that I drove across last month in Beijing. It’s called the Sanyuan Bridge. In 2015, the Chinese decided
they wanted to renovate that bridge. It actually has twice as many
lanes of traffic. How long did it take for them
to complete the project? Twenty fifteen, what do you bet? Take a guess — OK, three — Take a look. (Laughter) The answer is 43 hours. (Audience: Wow!) (Laughter) Graham Allison: Now, of course,
that couldn’t happen in New York. (Laughter) Behind this speed in execution
is a purpose-driven leader and a government that works. The most ambitious
and most competent leader on the international stage today
is Chinese President Xi Jinping. And he’s made no secret
about what he wants. As he said when he became
president six years ago, his goal is to make China great again — (Laughter) a banner he raised long before
Donald Trump picked up a version of this. To that end, Xi Jinping has announced
specific targets for specific dates: 2025, 2035, 2049. By 2025, China means to be
the dominant power in the major market
in 10 leading technologies, including driverless cars, robots, artificial intelligence,
quantum computing. By 2035, China means to be
the innovation leader across all the advanced technologies. And by 2049, which is
the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic, China means to be
unambiguously number one, including, [says] Xi Jinping,
an army that he calls “Fight and Win.” So these are audacious goals,
but as you can see, China is already well on its way to these objectives. And we should remember
how fast our world is changing. Thirty years ago, the World Wide Web had not
yet even been invented. Who will feel the impact
of this rise of China most directly? Obviously, the current number one. As China gets bigger
and stronger and richer, technologically more advanced, it will inevitably bump up against
American positions and prerogatives. Now, for red-blooded Americans — and especially for red-necked Americans
like me; I’m from North Carolina — there’s something wrong with this picture. The USA means number one,
that’s who we are. But again, to repeat:
brute facts are hard to ignore. Four years ago, Senator John McCain
asked me to testify about this to his Senate Armed Services Committee. And I made for them a chart
that you can see, that said, compare the US and China to kids on opposite ends
of a seesaw on a playground, each represented by the size
of their economy. As late as 2004,
China was just half our size. By 2014, its GDP was equal to ours. And on the current trajectory,
by 2024, it will be half again larger. The consequences of this tectonic change
will be felt everywhere. For example, in the current
trade conflict, China is already
the number one trading partner of all the major Asian countries. Which brings us back
to our Greek historian. Harvard’s “Thucydides’s Trap Case File”
has reviewed the last 500 years of history and found 16 cases in which a rising power threatened to displace a ruling power. Twelve of these ended in war. And the tragedy of this
is that in very few of these did either of the protagonists want a war; few of these wars were initiated
by either the rising power or the ruling power. So how does this work? What happens is,
a third party’s provocation forces one or the other to react, and that sets in motion a spiral, which drags the two somewhere
they don’t want to go. If that seems crazy, it is. But it’s life. Remember World War I. The provocation in that case was the assassination
of a second-level figure, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which then led
the Austro-Hungarian emperor to issue an ultimatum to Serbia, they dragged in the various allies, within two months,
all of Europe was at war. So imagine if Thucydides were watching
planet Earth today. What would he say? Could he find a more appropriate
leading man for the ruling power than Donald J Trump? (Laughter) Or a more apt lead for the rising
power than Xi Jinping? And he would scratch his head and certainly say he couldn’t think
of more colorful provocateur than North Korea’s Kim Jong-un. Each seems determined
to play his assigned part and is right on script. So finally, we conclude again
with the most consequential question, the question that will have
the gravest consequences for the rest of our lives: Are Americans and Chinese going to let
the forces of history drive us to a war that would be catastrophic for both? Or can we summon
the imagination and courage to find a way to survive together, to share the leadership
in the 21st century, or, as Xi Jinping [said], to create
a new form of great power relations? That’s the issue I’ve been
pursuing passionately for the last two years. I’ve had the opportunity to talk
and, indeed, to listen to leaders of all
the relevant governments — Beijing, Washington, Seoul, Tokyo — and to thought leaders across the spectrum
of both the arts and business. I wish I had more to report. The good news is that leaders
are increasingly aware of this Thucydidean dynamic and the dangers that it poses. The bad news is that
nobody has a feasible plan for escaping history as usual. So it’s clear to me
that we need some ideas outside the box
of conventional statecraft — indeed, from another page
or another space — which is what brings me to TED today and which brings me to a request. This audience includes many
of the most creative minds on the planet, who get up in the morning and think not only about how to manage
the world we have, but how to create worlds that should be. So I’m hopeful that as this sinks in
and as you reflect on it, some of you are going to have
some bold ideas, actually some wild ideas, that when we find, will make
a difference in this space. And just to remind you if you do, this won’t be the first time. Let me remind you of what happened
right after World War II. A remarkable group of Americans
and Europeans and others, not just from government, but from
the world of culture and business, engaged in a collective
surge of imagination. And what they imagined
and what they created was a new international order, the order that’s allowed you and me
to live our lives, all of our lives, without great power war and with more prosperity
than was ever seen before on the planet. So, a remarkable story. Interestingly, every pillar of this
project that produced these results, when first proposed, was rejected by the foreign
policy establishment as naive or unrealistic. My favorite is the Marshall Plan. After World War II,
Americans felt exhausted. They had demobilized 10 million troops, they were focused on
an urgent domestic agenda. But as people began to appreciate
how devastated Europe was and how aggressive Soviet communism was, Americans eventually decided
to tax themselves a percent and a half of GDP
every year for four years and send that money to Europe
to help reconstruct these countries, including Germany and Italy, whose troops had just
been killing Americans. Amazing. This also created the United Nations. Amazing. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The World Bank. NATO. All of these elements of an order
for peace and prosperity. So, in a word, what we need
to do is do it again. And I think now we need a surge
of imagination, creativity, informed by history, for, as the philosopher
Santayana reminded us, in the end, only those
who refuse to study history are condemned to repeat it. Thank you. (Applause)

Comments (100)

  1. Why people around the World don’t like china no matters what propaganda here and there from china … you can see people around the World talking about china taking this and that from their countries .. you can hear the people talk about high cost of living because of china mainlanders in their countries .. that’s how Trump got all the support from the people about Trade War

  2. China & real Americans do not want war. Conflict is healthy and will continue. Mistakes might happen; most likely from my side here in America.

  3. What this moron forgets is that the US set China up for it's growth. Who do you think helped China,That's a big misconception that they did it all alone. No

  4. wow! great speech!

  5. I thought that Herodotus was the "father" of history. His history precedes that of Thucydides. No?

  6. For most of the last 500 years nuclear weapons did not exist. The game is different and the rules have to change.

  7. "Extreme poverty" should NOT be defined in dollar terms, it was originally deliberately defined in terms of actual access to basic living needs. The current trend of defining it financially is misleading in so many ways.The current favoured definition of (nominal) US$1 per day income is of course a self-fulfilling prophecy of progress because the real value of the dollar declines with time.

  8. These figures are grossly misleading, today China still contains more people living in extreme poverty than any other country. Most of the wealth of China is concentrated in a 300 mile wide strip along the coast which benefits from the export economy, and there is a gradient of increasing poverty in going east to west. In per capita terms, despite it's great progress, China is still an extremely poor country by western standards. The west sees China in terms of its aggregate wealth, the Chinese experience China in terms of its per capita wealth. This one fact is central to the different world views of China & the west on China's position in the world.

  9. Western so-called 'strategists' are so useless, it comes from their arrogance. They are talking about the problem of dealing with "China", but the Chinese and Russians are together now. As usual all their thinking is slow and out of date. Russia & China were driven into each other's arms by the west's insane foreign policies since the end of the Cold War. If you are going to deal with China you will be dealing with Russia too, and vice-versa. This alliance has so many complementarities and synergies: population sizes, raw materials, energy, technological innovations, military capabilities, nuclear weapons, it is game over before the west starts if they want to play the 19th century game. Of course they are too dumb to work this out so they will walk straight into it.

  10. I went to school too, I read the "Peloponnesian Wars". It is not necessary to patronise your audience and treat them like school children some of them are probably a lot more knowledgeable and intelligent than you are. Perhaps what you should have been reading was Polybius.

  11. To understand China's economic policies you should study those carried out by Taiwan and South Korea since 1950. The Chinese basically learned from their experiences.

  12. Most of China's superlatives are simply due to its absolute size. China contains 20% of all people but it does not have 20% of the world's economy by any means.

  13. I was told by a Greek expert its pronounced Thuc 'eye' dides????

  14. Your knowledge of the genesis of the post-WW2 world is deficient. The framework which was followed was developed during the war by the 'Council on Foreign Relations' through their 'War Peace' studies group. There is a reason why the UN HQ is located in the USA. The most important first step was the use of the concept of the 'United Nations' which was already in use by 1943 (I think). This made use of the alliance against Germany to build common ground among the powers. After the war the important thing was the gradual hammering out of ground rules in succeeding decades and red lines which enabled peaceful coexistence and the avoidance of war. Certain key principles were observed, for example never having regular combat troops operational in the same country. With the end of the Cold War the USA adopted a monopolar view of the world that delighted in destroying all these principles. A phoney 'idealism' was adopted to justify the routine use of military force in foreign policy, so called 'liberal interventionism'. This was led by the neo-cons.This monopolar world ended in 2014 when Russia put its foot down in Ukraine & Syria. If war is to be avoided the first thing Washington know-it-alls have to do is to return to a REALISTIC foreign policy. They have to remember how to negotiate & trade rather than dictate. The second thing they have to do is to abandon their "Zero Sum Game" analysis of the world. It should be possible for other powers to prosper without the west regarding it as a threat to national security. Every state has right to self-defence and every state has a right to economic progress. To deny these points is to embrace a major power war.

  15. India will balance the USA , China power equation for world peace.

  16. I want peace, but people with power are greedy.

  17. No and i wouldnt call it a war id call it a holocaust or a global suicide exercise or just simply stupidity

  18. China is just not a trustable ally. For instance, the way they overfish and falsify their numbers affecting quotas, which demonstrate how they don’t care about nobody but themselves. They are, as a government (not talking about Chinese people individually) opportunistic, they don’t respect international conventions, change sides depending on what is better for them, don’t give a damn about international community. In other words, it is just a matter of time before they begin their usual backstabbing.

  19. Why "the grandest collision in history?"

    And, the one and only greatest collision in history has already occurred. The Second World War. All subsequent World history is shaped by that Global World catastrophe.
    The United States of America had it's growth into world leading standard of living in the Modern Age, the century which The Second World War modernized the Industrial Era.

    China is growing into it's advanced standard of living evolution in the Post-Modern Era; this, our now Post- Industrial Age, the Age of the Microchip, and even nanotechnology.

    This man is having difficulty accepting, recognizing and respecting that China is and has been for a time already now, the World's leading economy.

  20. Why should Americans see China's becoming the World's leading economy an "assault on us"?

    What's so surprising about China's increase in standard of living and growth? Why the seeming amaze and alarm in the speed in China's growth?
    In this, the Age of the Microchip! (Post-Industrial era).
    In context and perspective, global perspective and in view of History, America had it's standard of living rise to world leading status in the Industrial Age, (no Computer Age yet for another 45 years), and post Second World War condition.

  21. let china dominate the western hemisphere except for europe and russia while us and canada dominate the west. also china and us will never fight since white men will have to kill their chinese wives and half breeds will be incarcerated.

  22. Napoleon once said: if the world were one country then its capital must have been Istanbul. The US needs a powerful friend with no stake at Istanbul, and the candidate has to be China. Why the US tried so hard to let China become a permanent member of the UN security council towards the end of World War II? Whom the US had to make friend in order to win the Cold War? The speaker is a shallow old fool with very little sense about history.

  23. Because of technology, there was not such deep economy inter dependence like now between power nations in human history. Trade war could be the factor that prevent actual war. Nowadays, heavy industry and defense industry are much smaller than consumer industries, the interests groups don’t have the leverage to push whole political population into favoring war in China or US. Just hope.

  24. Inspirational speech :|: Capitalism = Competition has enabled a highly developed world and disabled the notion of working together from the bottom to the top. When is it time for the world to stop building and instead start fixing? China seems to be doing both with one belt one road and lifting so many people out of poverty. Let’s build a secure computerised Government and let the people vote on legislation via smartphone apps. I would put more confidence in the collective consciousness of a nation than the system we currently have, which serves the purpose of few at the expense of the other 99.9348%. Ultimately we all need to start the one world initiative for the people by the people and the corporatocracy will inevitably self destruct because power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely..

  25. Of course China is rising fast…they don't have to contend with any rights or liberties of its citizens, citizens exist solely as a tool of the state, a slave if you will to the elites who hold absolute power. Think the people as drones, and the party as the Queen.

  26. All this adulation for China. Minor detail. It’s a communist police state.

  27. China is a totalitarian big brother system, and is therefor doomed to fail. I predict another Chinese revolution within the next few years

  28. A young and strong lion will eventually replace the old and weak lion to become the new king of the beast !

  29. China has a history of 5,000 years and has never colonized abroad.

  30. 中国应该避免陷入修斯底德陷阱,美国也是一样,合则两利才是发展之道,再行霸道不可取,以王道治之才是良剂

  31. For sure after China destroyed the US they will give even 3% of their GDP for 10 years to reconstruct the US and create the Earth Bank and the Global Nation and run all things. Amazing it will be!

  32. China's goal is not to be the global hegemon(ie, dominant power) as that is a zero-sum game and not worth the cost. First and foremost, is lifting its people out of poverty so that they enjoy stability, peace, and prosperity. Then it's doing the same for rest of the world like Africa and other developing countries so that they enjoy the same quality of life. By doing so, not only benefits China, but the rest of the world by creating a more stable and peaceful social order globally.

  33. What his comments just very ridiculous, the world have been changing , nowdays everybody have unclear, America, China whatever who all unwilling to start the war. Just like America and Russia, maybe a cool war, but never a warm war. A Warm war looks as a huge stupid action. Only those nation whose thought is limited by God willing to start a War.
    However I have to say, China maybe be repected as the new leader of the world 50years late, because China hope and helping those lower income countries to grow.
    I am just a normal Chinese.

  34. As Chinese we should be humble with our gdp per cap, we Chinese in history had no intention for war though. Thanks for sharing this idea to make us not repeating the history

  35. 幸好有字幕😢英语废

  36. 2049是要成为中等体量的发达国家啊,不是第一啦。

  37. China is a second rate country and only a regional power. The only have one base outside their borders and it's somewhat laughable too.

  38. As long as US companies continue to give the Chinese our intellectual property and jobs – they are supporting the Chinese objectives and the end of American dominance.

  39. Bye bye America, your era of pillaging foreign countries and killing its people and seizing its resources has announced its end.
    If you don't yet know what the afterlife would look like, just ask previous empires, the Greeks, the Romans, the Babylonians etc … that's if you can find them anywhere.
    You will be remembered … in the annals of history.

  40. So team, how do we win?

  41. In today's perspective Thucydides trap was two small towns fighting each other 2400 years ago, I don't quite see the applicability here for using it as a framework to describe any country in today's world.

  42. We are finally moving towards real solutions. Reduce regulations. Increase industrial and energy independence. Have make sense immigration ecosystem – laws, enforcement and execution – make immigration safe, legal and fair to all and, of course, beneficial to US. Guard our intellectual property. Help our poor effectively and not just throwing money on the problem. Think LONG TERM. Etc. This will enable us to compete with the rest of the world.

  43. CCP will crumble. China will have civil war because of economic down turn and high pork prices.

  44. There was a country excluded from this marshalls plan – Poland.

  45. Very naive to think the communists are after peace.

  46. 所谓“美国第一”的信念,使美国不仅仅把中国作为敌人,美国势必与所有希望繁荣壮大的各国家为敌。万恶的美国政府,世界人民的罪人!

  47. Has the West Lost it?
    https://quillette.com/2019/06/26/four-flavors-of-doom-a-taxonomy-of-contemporary-pessimism/

    Moral of the lesson. Make friends while you make money. Common interest & welfare will eliminate wars!

  48. If the US don't want war, why are they spending the greatest amount in the military than any other countries? Admit it. The US can only stay number one when Eurasia is at war, and it will do everything to make sure that peace never comes to Eurasia.

  49. A better title might be: Is a war between the two possible?

  50. He is asking a big question, can we (US and China) find a way to avoid war, I am all in for it, if it's not one sided.
    First, I will ask your media, stop demonize us! Stop being a racist.

  51. Since every countries treat Chinese badly in history, Chinese rise their country on their own method. The Western world feel uncomfortable for this, and Hong Kong people also feel uncomfortable for this.

  52. Nossa como os eua são bonzinhos, mesmo os alemães e os italianos tendo matado seus soldados eles investiram parte do seu PIB na reconstrução desses países. Talvez esse investimento tenha sido cobrado depois com muito juros… talvez reconstruir um país faz com que você tenha maior influência sobre ele… talvez os americanos que lucraram reconstruido os países europeus nao eram das mesmas familias que os soldados da classe trabalhadora….

  53. CHINESE MUST BECOME DEMOCRATIC…..CHINESE PEOPLE NEED TO BE HEARD….COMMUNIST NEEDS TO END

  54. As a Chinese, why should we live in the nest of the earth? Why don't we develop together and explore the ocean of stars (the universe)? What's the meaning of grabbing the cake so much?

  55. Importantly, China can never be a global empire, because it lacks the essentials to be naturally accepted, civilization, all the great empires from Babylon, Assyria, Greece, Rome, and then the western countries that created the empires from the century XV, until the American empire, had one thing in common, brought civilization to the assimilated peoples, and not only economic, but philosophical, religion, scientific, etc., China will bring absolutely nothing new to Europe or the US, no philosophy exportable, no political solution to the world's problems, no science, no religion to replace the existing ones that are already in place, or whatever China comes to bring is just a simple thing, buy our products because they are cheaper, too little for such a big ambition.

  56. 听一个外国人吹中国很舒服啊

  57. China is the only major industry countries who build industry system basically only based on people,s intelligence and hardworking without any colony interest. while all the other developed countries more or less transfer the pain to the colony people a lot of them even been genocide. if there are no "free indian land " to be explored, trouble comes…….

  58. As an Chinese, the most frequent thing I heard is China is and will maintain in a initial stag of socialism development in a relatively long time. Never hear of 2049 goal is become the No.1. Chinese people is like this, when someone look down upon us we say: China no.1. When the US say China no.1 we say: that’s not true. Hah

  59. China is the most corrupt totalitarian country in the world. It enslaves its own people and when they protest their slavery it murders them mercilessly. Its tech is all stolen and copied.

  60. Kalifornia is Chinas base of operations in the US. It has been turned into a satellite thru corruption and infiltration of practically all the government, the universities, research, and even the unions and socialist parties.

  61. All Chinese businesses are frauds. They are all part of the Chinese government, therefore they are not businesses. They are spies.

  62. Communist TED needs to be shown for the terrorist organization they are and shut down.
    TED is just a branch of the Chinese propaganda Army.
    TED, ideas worth shredding.

  63. Speaker got his facts wrong, China GDP is 12.24 trillion, America 19.39. how can you listen to someone that gets simple Google facts wrong?

  64. Prof. Allison does not understand the Chinese psyche; Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism don't lead China to any military ambition.

  65. The answer is all in the 禮運大同篇 by the Confucius. This is a wisdom from 2000 years ago. There is no need to reinvent the wheel. Go read it and you know why China has been strong and will continue to be strong.

  66. Those that refuse to study history of the world are condemned to repeat it! Let’s Give Peace a chance! As the Beatles song All we are saying Let’s give peace a Chance! Live and let live! After world War 1 ended 20 millions dead After world war 2 ended 35 millions dead All of us people of this one n only world All Children of the Good God up above praying with one Heart n mind in our own simple ways n place to have Peace let’s all keep the the Hope Love n Peace in Our hearts n mind collectively we can avert the disastrous consequence of another World War! K Vox populi vox dei the voice of the poor majority people of this world is the voice of God!

  67. What do you mean "inevitable"? (Just read the title). Don't do it, don't steer there and it doesn't happen.

  68. dis video stoooopid

  69. 坏了,忽悠失败了!

  70. China is a cursed nation because they deliberately abort the unborn child, China is the Devil’s nation, so cursed, what goes up, must fall down, the bubble will bust, China hates Almighty God and she will fall into the ocean if it continues to mock the One True God. China will crack without Christ, China persecutes Christians and God will break that country if they keep it up .

  71. "Make China great again". More like make China communist, authoritarian and dictator-like again.

  72. How do you take over a country that in all practical purposes is a Stable Country, "The United States" you cause a total disruptive change in the Phychic Mind's and it's economy of it's people. First by inducing fear, and this country has been doing it, I personally know sense the. 50's.The Air Raid's that was going off at least three times a day,, the assassanation of JFK, Pearl Harbor, Kent State, the day to day televised Vietnam War, the constant Creation of, Boogyman,. that lies around every corner that we just have to eliminate which will never be achieved, NAFTA , the coup de grace, The New York Trade Tower's as well the whole, Complex, that the media never mentioned and covered which gave birth to be the Patroit Act and Endless Wars. And the only one's
    that come through it all are the 1%.
    We have been, Dumbed Dmmown throughout our Public Education Systems and our government is so
    Corrupted and the American People are apprehensive but they just can't seem to put their finger on why🤔i

  73. Trump advocates isolation and Americans first, why bother to talk and negotiations with others

  74. When Britain was an Empire USA also worked quietly and treated Britain as her assumed enemy

  75. He said it at the end. A New World Order. Sends shivers down my spine

  76. End all central government

  77. Please get a heart attack, you old Jew-serving fart.

  78. Strap your boots. War is coming

  79. We are ready for war with china because they think they can beat us. Now is the time to give them another 100 years of humiliation.

  80. Already happening and the first president to fight back is under attack by Chinese assets in the demonrat party.

  81. This dude really loves to say Thucydides?

  82. In 2049 Xi Jiping will watch Blade Runner.

  83. China, United the people and put someone in power love the people, this is the main reason for china progression, not like the US destroy people who they don't like, create damage between family, a psychopath in control of society, black – white – Arab- Spanish -and much more

  84. but china wouldn't stand a chance, the US is no.1 super power, plus they have allies like us british. no communist will ever defeat the free world

  85. From a 2019 perspective, this provocating third party may not be north korea but HK… When you say how china's govenrment is repressing democracy there and is thinking on sending armed troops, you start wondering whether the world should intervene. Hong Kong is a symbole of democracy fighting against authoritarism. If it falls, we will be next.

  86. Imagine saying a greek man wrote the first ever history book when there is the original scrolls of the Hebrews.

  87. United Nations is not anything to celebrate. They are the most corrupt group of individuals that hope to rule the world.

  88. Globalization is more important and better alternative to war. We all have shared humanity and dream.

  89. If you don’t know the horrible disasters made by WWI. WWII. then you may know less about what WWIII could bring• All because it still not comes so we all sit together peacefully and have a discussion. Those general civilians who had and hadn’t wanted a war was mostly regretted to see wars when it started,after knowing it wasn’t playing games.

  90. "We defeated the wrong enemy." – General Patton

  91. Wonder which brand he smoked??

  92. The professor is superficially objective and rational, but carries private goods. He believes that the United Nations World Bank and so on are the contributions of the United States and the United States to peace. It is nothing more than a concept that the United States continues to ''Leader' (exploitation) the world, the world will be peaceful, then look at what will be the face of the US interests, not to mention How many wars have the United States fought,, the Middle East is a mess, how to talk about peace.The old guy has problems starting point He doesn't know China's history at all. He doesn't understand Chinese people. Not many countries are more fond of peace than China. His so-called hope to find an idea to avoid the so-called war and throw the problem to the "elite" in the audience is actually hope The United States has been able to suppress China, and then, and then the National Day military parade, the most disgusting thing is that the New York Times reported that China did not put peace pigeons, as always, the Chinese threat theory, and of course the face was smashed.fAKE news

  93. It's a real problem, not a funny story

  94. Americans has plenty of money they like war and like to be a wars’ hero. So she experienced financial crisis and want to blame others except she herself. Blaming others is a good way to cover up own wrong doings. Childish ! Childish is also part of democracy and freedom but when you are still a child, not the size of body I see you have

  95. why white people cant accept the truth ?

Comment here